In The News
Nature vs Nurture
Dr. Eric J. Nestler, Director of Friedman Brain Institute at the Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York City discussed with Scientific American how environmental stresses that we encounter everyday play a role in our genetic makeup. Dr. Nestler describes throughout the interview how through the process of genetic modifications, the expression of genes in the human genome can be regulated as a result of certain environmental pressures experienced by the individual. In certain cases, these genetic modifications can be passed down to our offspring via epigenetic inheritance. While the idea of epigenetic inheritance may sound daunting to the general population, it is a concept that most people have become familiar with. Dr. Nestler provides a great example in the case of a female mouse who is fed a high-fat diet. The progeny of this mouse, before they are ever exposed to any diet, are likely to be more vulnerable to becoming obese due to the inherited genetic modifications as a result of their mother's high-fat diet. Whether we are discussing an individual who is more prone to becoming obese or has a greater risk to becoming addicted to drugs and alcohol, through the study of epigenetics, researchers are discovering that it is not Nature or Nurture, but Nature and Nurture that play a vital role in our genetic makeup. But are these changes permanent? Why should I have to pay for the experiences of my parents?
According to Professor Isabelle Mansuy from the University of Zurich, we may not have to...At least permanently. In an interview with Scientific American, Prof. Mansuy explains, "The effects of trauma which can be transmitted to the offspring can be reversed by a positive experience." Just as a negative environment can be linked to the genetic modifications found in both parent and progeny, a positive environment may be able to reverse those modifications. In a society where our first response to any problems always seems to be, "Hey, there's a pill for that!", Prof. Mansuy proposes that drugs may not be the only or even the best solution. Through epigenetic research, scientists are gaining a more in depth look as to how a positive environment can possibly reverse not only the effects of epigenetic modifications, but possibly modifications made to the individual who experienced the traumatic event.
Why Should I Choose Whole Genome Sequencing?
Ten years ago this would have been a valid question, and to some regard still is, but a more fitting question for the age of technology we find ourselves in today is, "Why NOT choose whole genome sequencing?". Ten years ago, according to the NIH, the cost per genome hovered right around $10M, but due to scientific and technological advancements the $1,000 genome is now a reality. What used to be reserved for large corporations and research projects receiving astronomical funding is now available to even the smallest university labs. A major impact upon the cost of whole genome sequencing is the advancement of sequencing technology itself. High-throughput sequencing, also known as next-generation sequencing (NGS), has made whole genome sequencing largely accessible due to its capability for producing millions of reads. The capability of NGS instruments, such as the Illumina HiSeq, to produce millions of reads is what truely unharnesses to the power of whole genome sequencing; deep sequencing coverage.
One key benefit to choosing whole genome sequencing (WGS) over targeted sequencing methods is that WGS allows researchers an all-inclusive look at the genome in question. Where previous sequencing technologies and other methods lack, NGS platforms excel. High-throughput sequencing allows researchers to detect small and rare genetic mutations such as INDELs and SNPs. With the increased sensitivity that NGS platforms bring to whole genome sequencing, the field of personal medicine is exploding. Cutting-edge research is being performed in fields such as Oncology and Immunology with the goal in mind of not only treating a certain cancer or auto-immune disease as a whole, but formulating a treatment plan based on the individual with that certain diagnosis.
Now don't limit yourselves to only thinking that WGS is specifically for large genomes . Due to the scalability of certain NGS platforms, the power of whole genome sequencing can be applied to research of bacteria, fungi, and other microbial organisms. The sequencing depth achieved by NGS platforms allows researchers to truly take advantage of whole genome sequencing when it comes to sequencing small genomes, such as bacterium, because several bacterial genomes can be sequenced in parallel saving both time and money.